Advertisement - Content continues below
Environment

What was agreed at COP26 – and can we call it a success?

A last-minute intervention from China and India saw a commitment on phasing out coal watered-down.

COP26 President Alok Sharma fought back tears on Saturday night as a final agreement was reached at the climate conference.

Sharma apologised for the “deep disappointment” over the final pact, which saw an earlier pledge on the phasing out of coal watered down thanks to last-minute interventions by China and India. 

In spite of this, the UK government published a statement on its website saying COP26 had come to a “successful end” with a global agreement to accelerate action on climate change this decade.

So what was actually in the final COP26 agreement, how far will it go to halting climate change – and can we call the conference a success?

What was in the final agreement? 

The agreement is broken down into several sections, each covering a different area of climate change. The sections are as follows: 

  • Science 
  • Adaptation
  • Adaptation finance
  • Mitigation
  • Finance and capacity-building
  • Loss and damage
  • Implementation 
  • Collaboration

The final agreement followed several other pacts made at COP26, including a commitment to end and reverse deforestation and cut methane emissions by 30% by the year 2030.

Advertisement - Content continues below
Advertisement - Content continues below

Nearly 200 countries signed the final “Glasgow climate pact”, which covers dozens of different areas and pledges.

Adaptation was particularly high on the agenda due to a number of countries already suffering the effects of the climate crisis.

Adaptive measures are those that will help these countries adapt to change.

The Big Issue Shop

Eco-friendly gift hampers that make a positive impact

The Big Issue has collaborated with Social Stories Club to create limited edition gift hampers. Packed full of treats made by social ventures, this hamper would make the perfect gift for the festive season.

The final pact agreed to establish a “work programme” to define the global goal on adaptation and identifying needs and solutions to the climate crisis in badly-hit countries.

Finance for helping developing countries cope with climate change was also central to discussions, with the pact calling for finance from wealthier countries to be at least doubled in the coming years.

The pact asks countries to republish their plans on tackling climate change by the end of 2022, and has requested that countries make more ambitious commitments on reducing emissions by the end of 2022. 

Parties are encouraged to strengthen their emissions reductions and to align their national climate action pledges with the Paris Agreement.

Another key outcome was the conclusion of the so-called Paris rulebook, which lays out the rules for making the Paris Agreement functional.

The Paris Agreement, made at a 2015 COP, set the target of keeping global temperature rises below 1.5C.

The finalisation of the rulebook saw agreements made on how countries will report their carbon emissions and targets. 

Subscribe to The Big Issue

From just £3 per week

Take a print or digital subscription to The Big Issue and provide a critical lifeline to our work. With each subscription we invest every penny back into supporting the network of sellers across the UK. A subscription also means you'll never miss the weekly editions of an award-winning publication, with each issue featuring the leading voices on life, culture, politics and social activism.

What are the positives? 

Though COP26 has been branded a failure by many environmental groups, the pledges made at the conference have brought the forecast of global warming down.

The first set of reduction commitments brought the trajectory of 6C of warming down to 3.7C, then the second set took this down to a 2.4C course. 

COP26 also brought forward the date by which countries are being asked to submit more ambitious climate targets, now set for the end of 2022.

A large amount of money –  $20bn  was committed to protect forests, while more than 100 countries pledged to reverse deforestation by 2030. 

What are the negatives? 

Coal was undoubtedly the biggest disappointment in the final pact, with wording on phasing out coal watered-down twice throughout the negotiations.

The original clause, published late last week, read: 

“[The Conference of Parties] Calls upon Parties to accelerate the phasing out of coal and subsidies for fossil fuels”.

The first revised draft read:

“…Calls upon Parties to [accelerate] the phaseout of unabated coal power and of inefficient subsidies for fossil fuels”.

Thanks to a last-minute intervention by Chinese and Indian delegations, the wording was changed over the weekend so that the pledge was to “phase down” coal rather than “phase out”. 

Though Prime Minister Boris Johnson said the agreement sounded the “death knell” for coal, climate activists, indigenous delegations and environmental groups have blasted the new wording as inadequate. 

The deal calls for greater cuts to emissions and pledges more money for developing nations,but the pledges don’t go far enough to limit global warming to the key 1.5C agreed in Paris.

While some welcomed even one mention of coal, the first time it has ever been added to a COP agreement, others were disappointed that oil and gas were left out of the document.

Climate-vulnerable nations such as the Pacific Islands have also criticised the deal for failing to make strong commitments on climate finance.

Advertisement - Content continues below

Support The Big Issue and our vendors this Christmas

Every time you buy a copy of The Big Issue, subscribe or donate, you are helping our vendors to work their way out of poverty by providing 'a hand up not a hand out.' You’re helping Big Issue vendors achieve their #BigWish

Recommended for you

Read All
Green business: Four expert tips for making your company sustainable
Sustainability

Green business: Four expert tips for making your company sustainable

Have yourself a sustainable Christmas with WHSmith
Sponsored

Have yourself a sustainable Christmas with WHSmith

Meet the fashion editor, pig farmer and aircraft engineer who quit to fight the climate crisis
Activism

Meet the fashion editor, pig farmer and aircraft engineer who quit to fight the climate crisis

'The water turned brown while I was in it': Sewage pollution rises by more than 80% in a year
Water pollution

'The water turned brown while I was in it': Sewage pollution rises by more than 80% in a year

Most Popular

Read All
Video showing Boris Johnson repeatedly 'lying' to parliament hits 40 million views
1.

Video showing Boris Johnson repeatedly 'lying' to parliament hits 40 million views

Legacy benefits freeze left disabled people living on ‘historically’ low payments, court hears
2.

Legacy benefits freeze left disabled people living on ‘historically’ low payments, court hears

'Noel Gallagher was mega hungover and Will.i.am kept walking off' - The stories behind Big Issue photoshoots
3.

'Noel Gallagher was mega hungover and Will.i.am kept walking off' - The stories behind Big Issue photoshoots

Plans to remove British citizenship without notice 'would repeat Windrush mistakes'
4.

Plans to remove British citizenship without notice 'would repeat Windrush mistakes'